- living elements, known as flora or fauna. This practice is also known as gardening, which is the art and craft of growing plants and creating a beautiful environment within the landscape.
- natural elements including landforms, terrain shape and elevation, and/or bodies of water.
- human or unnatural elements such as structures, buildings, fences or other material objects created and/or installed by humans
- abstract elements including but not limited to the weather and lighting conditions.
Most people consider landscaping as both a science and an art because it requires good observation and design skills, as well as keen knowledge on the different elements involved. A good landscaper can create a good, if not perfect balance between the elements of nature and construction by blending them accordingly.
Gardening, on the other hand, is the practice of growing plants. Gardening may refer in scale from fruit orchards, to long boulevard plantings with one or more different types of shrubs, trees and herbaceous plants, to residential yards including lawns and foundation plantings, to large or small containers grown inside or outside. This practice may be specialized in such a way that one only grow one type of plant, or may involve different plants in mized plantings. But both can be labor intensive and involves an active participation in the growing of plants, which differentiate it from farming or forestry.
Plants in gardening is classified in to different types: ornamental and useful. Ornamental plants are grown for their flowers, foliage or overall appearance, and sometimes for their dyes. Useful plants, on the other hand, are grown to be consumed just like vegetables, fruits, herbs and leaf vegetables. This type may also be used as medicinal plants.